Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus
Scarce winter visitor
Glaucous Gulls are regular winter visitors to the West Midlands Region and are anticipated every winter by gull-watchers at the larger roosts, particularly Belvide, Blithfield & Chasewater in Staffordshire and Draycote Water in Warwickshire. An early analysis of the status of Glaucous and Iceland Gull in the region was published in British Birds in 1976 (Dean and Dean, 1976).
A more comprehensive presentation follows. Factors such as the observation of gulls at (a) day-time feeding sites such as refuse tips, and (b) evening roost sites at lakes and reservoirs, inevitably introduce some duplication of sightings of individual gulls, and some adjustment for these factors has been made in the analyses.
The annual numbers of Glaucous Gulls during 1986 - 2010 (based upon arrival dates) are displayed in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Annual totals of Glaucous Gulls in the West Midlands Region, 1986 - 2010.
Numbers reached a peak of at least 41 during 1989 (and there were 40 during 1980) but, since 1990, there have been no more than 26 in any one year and generally fewer than 20. In 1996 only two individuals were recorded and only five during 2000 and 2003.
Prior to the 1990s Glaucous Gull was a considerably more numerous visitor than Iceland Gull. During the 1990s, however, there was a shift and Iceland Gull became the commoner visitor. During the early 2000s, Iceland Gulls also declined and the totals of each species are more comparable. Both species then increased but Iceland Gulls distinctly more so, with an unprecedented influx of 64 Iceland Gulls during 2009 . The five-yearly totals for the two species between 1986 and 2010 are presented in Table 1. See also Iceland Gull for the comparative profile of annual totals of that species.
|Five-yearly period||Glaucous Gull||Iceland Gull|
|1986 - 1990||129||72|
|1991 - 1995||65||105|
|1996 - 2000||50||92|
|2001 - 2005||42||52|
|2006 - 2010||76||134|
Table 1. Comparative five-yearly totals of Glaucous Gull and Iceland Gull, in the West Midlands Region, 1986 - 2010
Despite an improvement in numbers adults remain scarce compared with the levels prior to 1995.
The monthly distribution of records during 1986 - 2010 is presented in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Monthly distribution of arrival dates of Glaucous Gulls in the West Midlands Region, 1986 - 2010.
Not unexpectedly, the majority of records falls in the period December to March (92%), with a clear peak during January (41%).
Glaucous and Iceland Gulls in the West Midlands (status up to 1975)
| Laughing |
Ring-billed | Common |
Lesser Black-backed |