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References & Acknowledgements



The following lists include:


Principal Source documents:

Harrison  G.R., Dean  A.R., Richards  A.J. & Smallshire  D. 1982. The Birds of the West Midlands. West Midland Bird Club.

Harrison G.R & Harrison, J.V. 2005.  The New Birds of the West Midlands. West Midland Bird Club.

West Midland Bird Club. 1979 - 2015. West Midland Bird Reports 46 - 82. West Midland Bird Club.


Other publications relevant to gulls in the West Midlands Region:

Dean, A.R. & Dean, B.R. 1976. Glaucous and Iceland Gulls in the West Midlands. British Birds 69: 179 - 180.

Dean, A.R. 1984. Origins and distribution of British Glaucous Gulls. British Birds 77: 165 - 166.

Dean, A.R. 1987. Seasonality of Herring Gulls in the West Midlands. British Birds 80: 632 - 633.

Dean, A.R. 1989. Status of Mediterranean Gull in the West Midlands Region. West Midland Bird Report 55: 34 - 39.

Dean, A.R. 2004. Status of Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis in the West Midlands region. West Midland Bird Report ( for 2002 69: 234 - 249.

Dean, A.R. 2011. The status of Caspian Gull in the West Midlands region. West Midland Bird Report (for 2009) 76: 244 - 249.

Green, G.H. 1977. Wintering gulls in Worcestershire and Warwickshire, Progress Report 1. (printed for limited circulation).

Green, G.H. 1978. Wintering gulls in Worcestershire and Warwickshire, Progress Report 2. (printed for limited circulation).

Hume, R.A. 1976. Inland records of Kittiwakes. British Birds 69: 62 - 63.

Hume, R.A. 1978. Variations in Herring Gulls at a Midland roost. British Birds 71: 338 - 345.

Stewart, P. 1997. Wintering Gulls in Worcestershire. (printed for limited circulation).

Winsper, J. 2014. Roof-top nesting gull study: concerning the population of gulls that breed within the Birmingham boundary. West Midland Bird Report 78: 237 - 249.


Selected key texts on identification and taxonomy of gulls:

Garner, M., Quinn, D., & Glover, B. 1997. Identification of Yellow-legged Gulls in Britain. British Birds 90: 25 - 62, 369 - 383.

Gibbins, C., Small, B.J. & Sweeney J. 2010. Identification of Caspian Gull. Part 1. British Birds 103: 142-183.

Gibbins, C., Neubauer, G. & Small, B.J. 2011. Identification of Caspian Gull. Part 2. British Birds 104: 702-742.

Grant, P.J. 1986. Gulls:  a guide to identification. Second edition. London.

Jonsson, L. 1998. Yellow-legged Gulls and yellow-legged Herring Gulls in the Baltic. Alula 4: 74 - 100.

Jonsson, L. 1998a. Baltic Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus - moult, ageing and identification. Birding World 11: 295 - 317.

Koskinen, H & Rauste, V. 2006. Primary moult of Baltic Gull during the first 15 months. Dutch Birding 28: 158-161.

Neubauer, G., Faber, M. & Zagalska-Neubauer, M. 2010. Yellow-legged Gull in Poland : status and separation from yellow-legged Herring Gull and hybrids. Dutch Birding 32: 163 - 170.

Olsen K.M. & Larsson, H. 2003. Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. London.

Yesou, P. 2002. Systematics of Larus argentatus - cachinnans - fuscus complex revisited. Dutch Birding 24: 271 - 298.


Other relevant texts:

Coulson, J. C., Monaghan, P., Butterfield, J. E. L., Duncan, N., Ensor, K., Shedden, C., & Thomas, C. 1984. Scandinavian Herring Gulls wintering in Britain. Ornis Scand. 15: 79-88.

Stanley, P. I, Brough, T., Fletcher, M. R., Horton, N., Rochard, J. B. A. 1981. The origins of Herring Gulls wintering inland in south-east England. Bird Study 28: 123-132.

Wernham, C.V., Toms, M.P., Marchant, J.H., Clark, J.A., Siriwardena, G.M. & Baillie, S.R. (eds). 2002. The Migration Atlas: movements of the birds of Britain and Ireland. London


Useful websites:

As well as being of great interest in its own right, Rudy's Gull-index also provides an index for linking to a variety of other gull-related websites.

Rudy's Gull-index (Rudy Offereins)

Martin Reid's website

Dick's Birds (Dick Newell)

Yellow-legged Gull Taxa/Azorean Gull/Lesser Black-backed Gull hybrids (Tim Marlow)


Principal thanks go to all those gull-watchers who have generated the underlying data upon which this site is based. Many of these observers are members of the West Midland Bird Club and their observations have been incorporated into the club's Annual Reports, which have provided a principal source of raw data for analysis. Anyone interested in gulls (or any other species!) in the West Midlands Region should most certainly become a member of the West Midland Bird Club. See the club's website for further details.

Many thanks go to Roger Clay, Graham Evans, John Harris, Phil Jones, John Judge, John Mallinson, Steve Nuttall, Steve Seal, Peter Stewart and Andy Warr for permission to use their images of some scarcer gulls photographed in the region. Their photographs significantly enhance the breadth of interest of the 'Picture Gallery'.

Jim Winsper kindly provided a copy of his paper describing the status of-nesting gulls in the Birmingham region.

For miscellaneous information, assistance and advice I am grateful to Adrian Dally, Martin Garner, Dick Newell, Peter Rock, and Peter Stewart, and for suggestions regarding improvements to the website I thank Dave Emley and Andy Mabbett.


Alan R. Dean

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